Characterization of primo nodes and vessels by high resolution light microscopyThe Primo Vascular System, Springer
Morphological properties of primo vascular system were characterized by a high resolution light microscopy that makes structural features with size of ∼100 nm clearly visible. High visibility and advanced contrast of the smallest features in the image are due to enhancement of high spatial frequencies in the optical transfer function. We have isolated primo nodes (PN), vessels (PV), and capillaries from the surface of organs in the peritoneal cavity of rats.
These structures correspond to Bonghan corpuscle, ducts, and ductules, discovered by B.H. Kim in the early 1960s. The non-fixed samples stained with acridine orange and Bouin fixed and H&E stained slides were observed, photographed, and analyzed. The primo vessel is composed of 1–20 primo-capillaries of 3–25 μm in diameter. A thin external envelope of primo-capillary is composed of muscle-like endothelial cells with rod-shape 15–20 μm nuclei directed along the capillary axis. The primo-capillaries carry a liquid that contains granules and cell-like structures rich in nucleic acids. The bundle of primo-capillaries of the primo vessel is laid into an external jacket composed of endothelial cells with 6–12 μm spindle-like or oval nuclei.
The primo nodes are oval-shape of 0.1–0.5 mm along the short and 0.5–1 mm along the long axis, on both ends connected to primo vessels of 3–6 cm in length and 40–100 μm in diameter. The primo node is essentially the interlacement of broadened and branched primo-capillaries covered with a 5–40 μm thick capsule. A single capillary bundle (B) of the incoming (afferent) vessel enters the node, branches into additional bundles, and fills the node interior by tightly spun and folded bundles. Capillaries converge, narrow, and come out from the node as a single bundle of the efferent primo vessel.
The structural features of primo nodes, vessels, and capillaries observed with a high resolution light microscope are very different from those observed in blood and lymphatic vascular samples. Specifically, the jacketed architecture of primo vessels has no known parallel in other vascular systems.
The article was published in: "The Primo Vascular System", Springer. 83-94.
This work was supported (in part) by the Fetzer Franklin Fund of the John E. Fetzer Memorial Trust.